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中风 如何急救才正确?
作者:未知 来源:39健康网 日期:[2010/12/11 11:27:54]
 掌握正确的应急措施对减少合并症,维持生命体征,防止病情加重,争取时间,进一步救治是十分重要的。发生脑卒中后该采取什么应急措施?  卒中是人们对急性脑血管疾病的统称,它是以猝然昏倒,不省人事,伴发口眼歪斜,语言不利,半身不遂或无昏倒而突然出现半身不遂为主要症状的一类疾病。无论儿童,青年还是中老年均可患病,该病具有发病率高,死亡率高,致残率高,复发率高,并发症多的四高一多特点,掌握正确的应急措施对减少合并症,维持生命体征,防止病情加重,争取时间,进一步救治是十分重要的。发生脑卒中后该采取什么应急措施?

  1、保持镇静,给病人以精神安慰。

  2、初步判断为脑卒中后,应使病人仰卧,头肩部稍垫高,头偏向一侧,防止痰液或呕吐物回流吸入气管造成窒息。如果病人口鼻中有呕吐物阻塞,应设法抠出,保持病人的呼吸道通畅。

  3、使病人平卧,解开病人领口纽扣、领带、裤带、胸罩,如有假牙也应取出。可不放枕头或将枕头垫在肩膀后面,使下颌略微仰起。

  4、如果病人是清醒的,要注意安慰病人,缓解其紧张情绪。宜保持镇静,切勿慌乱,不要悲哭或呼唤病人,避免造成病人的心理压力。

  5、打电话给急救中心或者医院神经专科,寻求帮助,必要时不要放下电话,询问并听从医生指导进行处理。

  6、及时清除口腔内异物,如呕吐物、假牙等,保持呼吸道通畅。

  7、避光可将窗帘拉上,避免强光刺激。

  8、有条件者可给予及时的吸氧。

        9、可以做一些简单的检查。如用手电筒观察病人双侧瞳孔是否等大等圆;如有可能应测量血压,如收缩压超过20千帕(150毫米汞柱)可以给病人舌下含服一片10毫克硝苯地平,即心痛定。

  10、有条件者呼叫救护车来运送病人。自行搬运病人时正确的方法是:2~3人同时用力,一人托住的病人的头部和肩部,使头部不要受到震动或过分扭曲,另一人托住病人的背部和臀部,如果还有一人,则要托起病人腰腿部,三人一起用力,平抬病人移至硬木板床或担架上,不搬运时把病人扶直坐起,切勿抱、拖、背、扛病人。

  11、在没有医生明确诊断之前,切勿擅自做主给病人用止血剂、安宫牛黄丸或其他药物。

 

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